100 FLYING BIRDS: Photographing the Mechanics of Flight
ADVANCED READING FOR CHAPTER 3: GULLS AND TERNS
JONATHAN LIVINGSTON SEAGULL
This book about a gull who finds contentment through non-conformity found an eager audience of readers in the 1970’s seeking their own path to happiness.
Accessed June 20, 2019
NEW ZEALAND’S ENDANGERED RED-BILLED GULL
A news article about the challenged faced by this native gull is here:
Accessed June 20, 2019
STUDIES OF THE LAVA GULL
A recent observational study of this rare bird was conducted by Thalia Grant and her colleagues:
Grant, K. T., O. E. Estes, & G. B. Estes. 2015. “Observations on the breeding and distribution of Lava Gull Leucophaeus fuliginosus.” Cotinga. 37: 22–37.
This paper is available for free on the Internet here:
provides very readable insight into the daily lives of Lava Gulls as they raise their chicks and defend them from predators.
Named for an outbreak in Newcastle upon Tyne in the United Kingdom, this virulent avian virus can be fatal to birds.
USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. 2020. “Virulent Newcastle Disease (vND).” Last modified April 3, 2020.
This disease has been found in chickens in the Galápagos Islands and is thought to be a threat to endemic birds with small populations such as Lava Gulls, Flightless Cormorants, and Galápagos Penguins.
Galapagos National Park. 2004. “Galapagos Invasive Species: Harmful animals.” Created October 25, 2004.
SEA STAR WASTING DISEASE
A discussion of the disease and images of the wasting process are here:
UC Santa Cruz Multi-Agency Rocky Intertidal Network (MARINe). 2020. “Sea Star Wasting Syndrome.” Last updated April 2, 2020.
Wikipedia contributors. 2020. “Sea Star Wasting Disease.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Last updated March 24, 2020.
OCEAN WARMING AND SEA STAR WASTING DISEASE
The association between abnormal ocean warming events and Sea Star wasting disease is discussed here:
Harvell C. D. , D. Montecino-Latorre, J. M. Caldwell, J. M. Burt, K. Bosley, A. Keller, S. F. Heron, A. K. Salomon, L. Lee, O. Pontier, C. Pattengill-Semmens, and J. K. Gaydos. 2019. “Disease epidemic and a marine heat wave are associated with the continental-scale collapse of a pivotal predator (Pycnopodia helianthoides).” Science Advances 5(1):eaau7042.
RECOVERY FROM SEA STAR WASTING DISEASE
A study that charts recovery of one important species of sea star is here:
Moritsch M. M. and P. T.Raimondi. 2018. “Reduction and recovery of keystone predation pressure after disease-related mass mortality.” Ecol Evol.8(8):3952-3964. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.3953
SURVIVAL OF ANTARCTIC TERN CHICKS
The following article described research at a rugged Antarctic Tern colony:
Karel Weidinger, K and V. Pavel. 2012. “Abundance and breeding of the Antarctic Tern Sterna vittata
at the James Ross and Seymour Islands, NE Antarctic Peninsula” Polar Biol (2013) 36:299–304
Accessed July 13, 202