100 FLYING BIRDS: Photographing the Mechanics of Flight

ADVANCED READING FOR CHAPTER 3: GULLS AND TERNS

 

JONATHAN LIVINGSTON SEAGULL

This book about a gull who finds contentment through non-conformity found an eager audience of readers in the 1970’s seeking their own path to happiness.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jonathan_Livingston_Seagull

Accessed June 20, 2019

 

NEW ZEALAND’S ENDANGERED RED-BILLED GULL

A news article about the challenged faced by this native gull is here:

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/feb/13/new-zealand-seagulls-under-threat-after-90-decline

Accessed June 20, 2019

 

STUDIES OF THE LAVA GULL

A recent observational study of this rare bird was conducted by Thalia Grant and her colleagues:

Grant, K. T., O. E. Estes, & G. B. Estes. 2015. “Observations on the breeding and distribution of Lava Gull Leucophaeus fuliginosus.” Cotinga. 37: 22–37.

This paper is available for free on the Internet here:

http://www.neotropicalbirdclub.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Grant-et-al-2.pdf

provides very readable insight into the daily lives of Lava Gulls as they raise their chicks and defend them from predators.

 

NEWCASTLE DISEASE

Named for an outbreak in Newcastle upon Tyne in the United Kingdom, this virulent avian virus can be fatal to birds.

USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. 2020. “Virulent Newcastle Disease (vND).” Last modified April 3, 2020.

https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/ourfocus/animalhealth/animal-disease-information/avian/virulent-newcastle/vnd

This disease has been found in chickens in the Galápagos Islands and is thought to be a threat to endemic birds with small populations such as Lava Gulls, Flightless Cormorants, and Galápagos Penguins.

Galapagos National Park. 2004. “Galapagos Invasive Species: Harmful animals.” Created October 25, 2004.

http://www.hear.org/galapagos/invasives/topics/management/vertebrates/projects/diseases.htm

 

[1]SEA STAR WASTING DISEASE

A discussion of the disease and images of the wasting process are here:

UC Santa Cruz Multi-Agency Rocky Intertidal Network (MARINe). 2020. “Sea Star Wasting Syndrome.” Last updated April 2, 2020.

https://marine.ucsc.edu/data-products/sea-star-wasting/index.html

 

Wikipedia contributors. 2020. “Sea Star Wasting Disease.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Last updated March 24, 2020.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sea_star_wasting_disease

 

 

OCEAN WARMING AND SEA STAR WASTING DISEASE

The association between abnormal ocean warming events and Sea Star wasting disease is discussed here:

Harvell C. D. , D. Montecino-Latorre, J. M. Caldwell, J. M. Burt, K. Bosley, A. Keller, S. F. Heron, A. K. Salomon, L. Lee, O. Pontier, C. Pattengill-Semmens, and J. K. Gaydos. 2019. “Disease epidemic and a marine heat wave are associated with the continental-scale collapse of a pivotal predator (Pycnopodia helianthoides).” Science Advances 5(1):eaau7042. 

PMID 30729157

PMCID: PMC6353623

DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aau7042

 

RECOVERY FROM SEA STAR WASTING DISEASE

A study that charts recovery of one important species of sea star is here:

Moritsch M. M. and P. T.Raimondi. 2018. “Reduction and recovery of keystone predation pressure after disease-related mass mortality.” Ecol Evol.8(8):3952-3964. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.3953

PMID:  29721271

PMC:   5916292

DOI:     https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.3953

 

SURVIVAL OF ANTARCTIC TERN CHICKS

The following article described research at a rugged Antarctic Tern colony:

Karel Weidinger, K and V. Pavel. 2012. “Abundance and breeding of the Antarctic Tern Sterna vittata

at the James Ross and Seymour Islands, NE Antarctic Peninsula” Polar Biol (2013) 36:299–304

DOI 10.1007/s00300-012-1251-y

Accessed July 13, 202